2021考研:阅读理解错的多怎么办? 
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2021考研英语阅读理解错的多怎么办?掌握这个方法,你将会事半功倍!

翻开考研英语的试题卷,大家可以发现传统阅读的篇幅占了试题册的一半多。从篇幅我们能推断出传统阅读在考研英语中的“分量”应该很大,事实也如此,传统阅读在考研英语总分100分当中占了40分,即将近一半的分数,鉴于此,同学们可以根据阅读的得分大概推测出自己英语单科的分数,因此江湖也有传言称:得阅读者得天下。

阅读纵然分值高,难度大,但我们可以通过揣摩命题人的出题思维及意图并结合学术性议论文的文章结构以及历年的试题考查情况来总结出一些非常实用的解题技巧进而提高做题的准确率。在之前的文章当中,我们给各位考生分享了关于细节题该如何通过“模糊定位”去确定答案出现的大概范围的技巧,在这一期我们一起来学习在模糊定位之后如何准确定位到解题句。

细节题准确定位的方法有两种,一种是通过题干关键词定位,另一种是通过选项关键词定位,其中前者的频率更高,在解题的时候优先使用。

要使用题干关键词准确定位就要先弄明白何为“关键词”。与大家过往的认知不同,关键词是指“能够定位到文中唯一一句话”的词或词组,简而言之,关键词具有唯一性,如下题:

The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat. USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next ten years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.

29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species is____.

[A]. federal government

[B]. the wildlife agencies

[C]. the landowners

[D]. the states

本题通过题干识别出是细节题之后,通过“题文同序”原则模糊定位到该部分,接下要使用题干中有用的信息去定位,发现Ashe这个专有名词可以定位到唯一一句话,之前的其他地方都没有出现过Ashe这个词,故Ashe这个词就是我们要找的关键词,本句也即解题句,通过同义替换直接选出D选项。

通过上面的例题给大家展示了关键词的“唯一性”是如何体现的。同时上题是通过关键词的原词定位到解题句,换言之上道例题的关键词的形式是原词,但是关键词也会以其他形式给出,如同义替换,所以当题干信息的原词无法解题时,考虑寻找同义替换。如下题:

① Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned.② School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on this educational ritual.③ Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a students academic grade.

21. It is implied in Paragraph 1 that nowadays homework____.

[A]. is receiving more criticism

[B]. is no longer an educational ritual

[C]. is not required for advanced courses

[D]. is gaining more preferences

本题按照大多数考生的习惯,通过homework定位回原文发现homework以不同的形式出现在很多地方,如第一句的原词,和代词it等,不能准确定位到一句话,故homework不是我们要找的关键词。这时考虑题干中另外一个有价值的信息nowadays,发现没有原词复现。这种情况下我们去寻找这两个信息的同义替换,发现homework无同义替换,nowadays对应第一句的in recent years,其他地方未出现,并且句中的it也对应题干中的homework,故nowadays为关键词,且本句为解题句,通过has been scorned与criticism之间的对应关系选出A选项。

前两题是通过题干的关键词准确定位到解题句,无法通过题干关键词准确定位或定位到的句子无法解题时,我们考虑通过选项关键词定位回原文,通过排除的方式选出正确答案。如下题:

① Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not.② Children were not color-coded at all until the early 20th century, in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them.③ What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses.④ When nursery colors were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine color, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength.⑤ Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolized femininity.⑥ It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.

27. According to Para.2, which of the following is true of colors?

[A] colors encoded in girl’s DNA

[B] blue used to be regarded as the color for girls

[C] pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders

[D] white is preferred by babies

本题通过唯一的一个题干信息定位回原文模糊定位段落的第四句,发现无法解题,所以只能通过选项关键词定位回原文逐一排除。[A]选项通过girl’s DNA定位回第一句,发现最后说it is not,说明粉色并不是编辑在女性DNA中的,与题干中的color以及后半句表述都不符合,排除;[B]选项通过blue定位到原文第五句,删除中间插入成分后,主干为“蓝色象征着女性气质”,与[B]选项“女性被认为是女子的颜色”是同义替换,故答案为[B]选项;[C]通过pink定位回原文第四句,说的是粉色被认为是更男性化的颜色,与[C]选项说的粉色是中性的颜色不符,排除;[D]选项通过white与babies定位回原文发现并未提及‘prefer偏好’的相关信息,排除。

总结来看,细节题在模糊定位之后,可以通过题干关键词定位回原文解题,关键词是“能够定位到文中唯一一句话”的词或词组,题干关键词的形式可以是原词也可以是同义替换,在题干关键词无法解题时,可以通过选项关键词定位回原文排除选项解题。这些解题技巧你学会了吗?


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